Victims are considered to be entrapped when they cannot leave the vehicle because parts of the body or the whole body is confined in the distorted vehicle after the impact. Such a situation requires special extrication procedures. Deformity of the vehicle may be complete, when the vehicle structure is damaged, or relative, when the victim is entrapped by safety devices (security bars, seat belt, etc), or when they are confined in the vehicle because a door or window is blocked.4-6
Olson et al.10 and Sauai et al.11 studied the impact of prehospital care in trauma victims and concluded that the kinetics and causes of death were similar, but that the late mortality due to head trauma increased. Another interesting finding was that there has been a shift in the three peaks of mortality previously described. Our findings show that entrapped victims follow the previous pattern described by Trunkey et al. in 1977, with greater mortality in the prehospital phas.
The anatomic distribution of injuries tends to relate to the vulnerability of each segment of the body, as well as to the type of event.11,24,25 The vulnerability of various segments of entrapped victims enhances the need for careful primary and secondary examinations, and, in particular, constant and multisystemic reassessment, so that early management of injuries can be accomplished.
There will always be air in concrete. This natural air is known as entrapped air. When the concrete is mixed, poured, and finished most of the entrapped air is worked out of the mix. The entrapped air that remains in the mix creates an air void. Most mix designs that do not have entrained air, are for interior applications that are unexposed to freeze-thaw cycles.
In this tip-of-the-month, we make the radial operator aware of techniques which have proven effective in the management of an entrapped radial sheath or catheter and highlight a stepwise approach to overcome this complication.
Depending on the law in the jurisdiction, the prosecution may be required to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that the defendant was not entrapped or the defendant may be required to prove that they were entrapped as an affirmative defense.
To catch as in a trap; to insnare [sic]; used chiefly or wholly in a figurative sense. To catch by artifices; to involve in difficulties or distresses; to entangle; to catch or involve in contraindications; in short, to involve in any difficulties from which an escape is not easy or possible. We are entrapped by the devices of evil men. We are sometimes entrapped in our own words.
The question of entrapment is considered only after there has been a finding of guilt. If, after finding the accused guilty, the court determines that the accused was entrapped, the court enters a judicial stay of proceedings. That is similar to an acquittal.
In 2013, a British Columbia couple were found guilty of attempting to blow up the British Columbia Parliament Buildings. In 2018, the verdict was overturned because the couple were found to have been entrapped into the plot by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
The argument employed in the majority opinion on Hampton became known as the "subjective" test of entrapment, since it focused on the defendant's state of mind. However, in all cases, concurring opinions had advocated an "objective" test, focusing instead on whether the conduct of the police or other investigators would catch only those "ready and willing to commit crime". Under the objective approach the defendant's personality (i.e., his predisposition to commit the crime) would be immaterial, and the potential for the police conduct to induce a law-abiding person considered in the abstract would be the test. This, supporters argued, avoided the dubious issue of an unexpressed legislative intent on which the Sorrells court had relied and instead grounded the entrapment defence, like the exclusionary rule, in the court's supervisory role over law enforcement. And like the exclusionary rule, they would have had judges, not juries, decide whether a defendant had been entrapped as a matter of law.
Since the subjective test focusing on predisposition had, unlike the exclusionary rule, not been applied to the states, they were free to follow it as they saw fit. The state courts or legislatures of 37 states have chosen the subjective test, while the others use the objective test. Some have allowed both the judge and the jury to rule on whether the defendant was entrapped.
Phase diagram of the non-Hermitian SSH model. The nonequilibrium phases that arise in the non-Hermitian SSH model at half-filling [see Eq. (2)] show four distinct phases. These include two central charge, c=2, chiral-Fermi sea (cFS) phases (labeled A and B), one c=1 cFS phase, and a non-Hermitian chiral insulating state with c=0, termed an entrapped insulator (EI).
Nature of the complex eigenspectrum. The real and imaginary parts of the single-particle energy eigenvalues are shown in (a) c=2 cFS-A (t1=0.5 and γ=0.2) with two spectral loops separated by a real line gap, (b) c=1 cFS (t1=1.05 and γ=0.5), which has a single loop, and in (c) the entrapped insulator phase (t1=0.1 and γ=2.5), which has two loops but separated by an imaginary line gap. The purple diamonds denote the filled states at half-filling, while the red (blue) stars show growing (decaying) chiral modes. The dotted lines (crosses) indicate the line gap (point gaps). Here, t1 and γ are scaled in terms of t2. We stick to this convention unless otherwise specified.
Phase diagram under open boundary conditions. Four phases arise in the non-Hermitian SSH model [see Eq. (8)] under open boundary conditions. Of these (i) the entrapped insulator (EI) and (ii) c=2 metal are nonequilibrium phases in their steady states, while (iii) the topological band insulator and (iv) the trivial band insulator are in equilibrium.
The amount of SRFT entrapped in Pull-SA conjugate was determined by calculating the optical density at 265 nm from a standard curve that was plotted beforehand. Measurements were carried out three times for each batch. The entrapment efficiency and loading content were calculated35 as follows:
In aqueous media, amphiphilic block or graft polymers demonstrate self-aggregation potential.44 The hydrophobicity of pullulan which is a water-soluble, extracellular neutral polysaccharide45 was increased by conjugating it to COOH of stearic acid, which is an 18-C endogenous long-chain saturated fatty acid with low cytotoxicity and high biocompatibility,46 after functional group modifications. Pull-SA conjugates formed self-assembled nanoparticles by the dialysis method. The characteristic parameters of the two different ratios of the drug-entrapped conjugates of Pull-SA (1:1 and 1:10) were measured and are presented in Table 1.
Identifying internalisation pathways for nano-drug delivery carriers leading to the efficient uptake of relevant drugs is significant.56 Therefore, the ability of PLC/PRF/5 cells to uptake the developed drug delivery system was studied by entrapping coumarin-6 fluorophore in Pull-SA conjugate to yield Pull-SA-C6 nanoparticles that were synthesised similarly to Pull-SA-SRFT nanoparticles. Cell nuclei stained with blue Hoechst and the red fluorescence (Cell-mask) on the plasma membrane clearly indicated the localisation of Pull-SA-C6 particles (green). After incubation of cells with the nanoparticles for 4 h, it was observed that cells could proficiently take up the particles (Figure 6A). This result was in line with the higher cytotoxicity of Pull-SA-SRFT, emphasising the importance of nanoparticle binding and internalisation to enhance the cytotoxic effect. Interestingly, the cells exhibited red fluorescence inside the cells after treatment along with the green Pull-SA-C6 particles (Figure 6B Merged). Perhaps, this was the portion of the membrane that was taken inside as result of receptor mediated endocytosis, clearly depicting the internalisation process of the developed drug delivery system. The 3-D images (Figure 6C) proves that the particles have entered inside the cells and are not adsorbed to the surface. These findings of the uptake of Pull-SA-C6 nanoparticles were in accordance with the previously reported studies, that pullulan complexed with the ASGPRs undergo endocytosis and get internalised with high affinity to the hepatocyte cells.57 As discussed earlier, this affinity is because of the orientation of hydroxyl groups on pyranose rings in pullulan structure that promotes proper binding of pullulan to the specific ASGPRs which further aids in endocytosis.Figure 6 CLSM images of cellular uptake study after treatment of PLC/PRF/5 cells with coumarin-6-entrapped Pull-SA for 4 h at 37C. Cell nuclei are stained in blue (Hoechst), plasma membrane in red (Cell mask) and Pull-SA-C6 nanoparticles in green (A) 63 Zoom 1 and 63 Zoom 2, scale bar: 50 µm showing the efficient uptake of Pull-SA-C6 nanoparticles. (B) 63 Zoom 5 image of one cell (Merged) clearly showing the receptor-mediated endocytosis mechanism of Pull-SA-C6 nanoparticles, scale bar: 10µm. (C) 3-D images of a cell showing that the particles are taken up inside and not adsorbed on the surface of cells, Scale bar: 10 µm.
The lipophilic anthracycline antibiotic annamycin (Ann) was entrapped in liposomes of different size [median diameter: 1.64 µm, multilamellar liposomal Ann (L-Ann); 0.030 µm, small unilamellar Ann (S-Ann)] with >90% entrapment efficiency and tested in vitro against four pairs of sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumor cell lines and in vivo by the i.v. route in five tumor models: advanced s.c. B16 melanoma; s.c. M5076 reticulosarcoma; lung metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma; and s.c. KB and KB-V1 xenografts in nude mice. Predetermined optimal doses of the different formulations were used and the results were compared with doxorubicin (Dox). In vitro, Ann, either in suspension in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (F-Ann) (1 mg/ml) or entrapped in liposomes, was able to partially overcome resistance in all four pairs of sensitive and MDR KB, 8226, P388, and CEM cell lines (resistance indexes 63, 269, 333, and 356 for Dox versus 4, 5, 19, and 8.7 for L-Ann, respectively). In vivo, both F-Ann and liposome-entrapped Ann were slightly more effective than Dox in inhibiting the growth of advanced s.c. B16 melanoma tumors. L-Ann was markedly more effective than Dox and moderately more effective than F-Ann in prolonging the life span of animals bearing s.c. M5076 and lung metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma tumors. All drugs were equally effective at optimal doses in delaying the growth of s.c. KB xenografts, whereas all Ann formulations were markedly more effective than Dox in delaying the growth of s.c. KB-V1 (MDR) xenografts. In all in vivo experiments, S-Ann was consistently more effective than L-Ann and L-Ann was more effective than F-Ann. These results indicate that (a) Ann is more effective than Dox by the i.v. route against several tumor models and that MDR tumors are partially not cross-resistant to Ann both in vitro and in vivo, (b) liposomes enhance the in vivo antitumor properties of Ann, and (c) small liposomes are more effective than large liposomes in enhancing Ann antitumor activity. 041b061a72